Oil and Water; Math and Science


The orange peel contains the fragrance of the fruit, the "essential oil". An essential oil is different that a "fixed oil" (nut or vegetable oil) which is not fragrant. Flavor scientists value essential oils and they extract them so they can use them in flavors. These oils are excellent starting materials  for flavoring beverages, but they need to be modified to be useful. They do not "go into" a beverage. We modify the oils to make them "go in" or  make them "miscible". Chemists use miscible to explain the phenomenon of  two liquids with similar polarities (intermolecular interactions) being combined uniformly. In contract, chemists use soluble to explain the phenomenon of a solid (solute) dissolving in a liquid … [Read more...]

Keeping it simple-Fruit Punch Flavor


SIMPLE KISS is an acronym used by scientists and engineers,"Keep it simple, stupid". The KISS principle states that most systems work best if they are kept simple and not made complicated. Basically, simplicity should be a key goal in design and unnecessary complexity must be avoided. Flavor scientists often add too many unneeded components to a flavor. Why? Because they are artists. Just like chefs, a flavor scientist "throw things in", because it seems like it should improve the flavor or because the ingredient is a favorite. Sometimes a flavor scientist developes a new flavor using other lengthy flavors, like making a blackberry flavor by combining a strawberry, blueberry and raspberry flavor. A finished flavor can easily end up … [Read more...]

10 Things about Ginger

Ginger Rhizomes

10 things about ginger: 1) It is important in pumpkin spice which is part of a Pumpkin Spice Latte #PSL. 2) It is described as warm, spicy,pungent, woody and/or citrusy. 3) It is commercially available in several different forms: ginger rhizome (fresh "root") ginger powder (dried and ground) ginger essential oil (steam distilled) ginger oleoresin (solvent extracted) ginger CO2 extract (extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide) 4) It is commercially available from many different growing regions: including India, China, Jamaica, Africa, Japan and the Middle East. Each growing region ginger varies in composition and flavor profile. 5) Ginger is used to flavor a variety of  food and beverages: Beverages: … [Read more...]

Futuristic Food Pills?


  Does anyone remember the Jetson's cartoon and "food pills"? They came in all sorts of flavors, satisfied biological functional needs and seemed enjoyable to consume? Personally, I don't envision food pills in our futuristic society, but it's an interesting concept. Are food pills in the future because they are convenient? Will they be well accepted? or is it because food pills are safer to consume? Deadly food allergies are increasing, more people are sensitive to gluten,there are deadly new pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and natural plant materials can be toxic. Realistically, one could make an argument that food pills could provide a safer food supply for our society. In contrast, one could argue that the food "experience" is … [Read more...]

Orange Essential Oil

orange tree

The most popular beverage flavor in the United States is orange. Although consumption of orange juice has declined in recent years, Americans are reported to have consumed 715,775 metric tons of orange juice in 2011.(http://www.indexmundi.com/agriculture/?country=us&commodity=orange-juice&graph=domestic-consumption)  That's a lot of juice!  Oranges are primarily grown in Florida, California and Brazil and they are processed for their juice. So what happens to the peels? Peels are further processed to isolate orange essential oil. Basically, the oil is squeezed out of the peel. Orange oil consists of limonene (~90%), geraniol (~5%), decanal (~3%), octanal (~3%) and myrcene (~2%). Other components included alpha and beta pinene, … [Read more...]